The Impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on the Indonesian Apparel Export

  • Siskarossa Ika Oktora Politeknik Statistika STIS
  • Nora Muhtasib Badan Pusat Statistik
Abstract Views: 3554 | PDF Downloads: 881


Download data is not yet available.
Keywords: Perdagangan Internasional, TIK, Industri Pakaian, Model Panel Gravity, Internasional Trade, ICT, Apparel Industry, Panel Gravity Model



Perkembangan Teknologi Informasi dan Komunikasi (TIK) berdampak pada perdagangan dalam era digital. Produk pakaian jadi merupakan komoditas utama dalam perdagangan yang ditunjukkan oleh tingginya permintaan untuk komoditas pakaian jadi. Hal tersebut menjadi peluang bagi pertumbuhan industri pakaian jadi dalam negeri, tidak hanya untuk memenuhi konsumsi domestik tetapi juga untuk memperluas pasar luar negeri. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengaruh TIK seperti penggunaan telepon seluler dan terbukanya akses internet, serta variabel lainnya seperti PDB, kurs, populasi, dan jarak terhadap ekspor pakaian jadi Indonesia ke sepuluh mitra dagang utama selama periode 2010-2016 dengan menggunakan model gravitasi pada data panel. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa TIK negara-negara tujuan ekspor berpengaruh signifikan terhadap ekspor pakaian jadi Indonesia, sedangkan TIK Indonesia memberikan hasil yang tidak signifikan. Sementara untuk variabel lainnya, hanya PDB yang berpengaruh signifikan, sedangkan kurs, populasi dan jarak tidak signifikan. Salah satu penyebab mengapa TIK Indonesia tidak signifikan adalah adanya kesenjangan yang lebar pada persentase pengguna internet antar wilayah, yang salah satunya disebabkan oleh tidak meratanya ketersediaan jaringan internet. Perluasan jaringan internet dengan kualitas baik akan dapat menghubungkan para desainer, industri hilir dan pedagang pakaian dalam rantai pemasaran yang lebih luas, selain keterlibatan Indonesia dalam Global Value Chain (GVC).

Kata kunci: Perdagangan Internasional, TIK, Industri Pakaian, Model Panel Gravity



The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) development has impacted on trade sector in the digital era. Apparel is the main trading commodity which is indicated by a high demand for apparel commodities. There is an opportunity for domestic apparel industry, not only to satisfy domestic consumption but also to expand overseas market. This research aims to analyze the impact of ICT such as the use of cellular telephone and the open access to internet, as well as other variables such as GDP, REER, Population, and Distance on Indonesian apparel export to ten main importers during 2010-2016, by using panel gravity model. This study found that ICT of the export destination countries significantly affected Indonesian apparel export, while Indonesia’s ICT gave insignificant result. Other variables that have significant impact was GDP. While REER, Population, and Distance gave insignificant impact. The reasons for this situation due to a wide gap of internet users percentage between regions because of the unevenly distributed internet sevices. This study suggested, in addition to Indonesia’s better participation in the Global Value Chain (GVC), the expansion of good quality internet networks would enable designers, downstream industries and apparel traders to connect in a broader marketing chain.

Keywords: International Trade, ICT, Apparel Industry, Panel Gravity Model

JEL Classification: P45, O33, L67, C33


Abeliansky, A. L., Hilbert, M. (2017). Digital technology and international trade: Is it the quantity of subscriptions or the quality of data speed that matters?. Telecommunications Policy, Vol. 41, pp. 35-48.

AIPEG. (2017). The Digital Economy in Indonesia.

Ardiyanti, S. T., Fakhrudin, U. (2015). Pakaian jadi Indonesia dalam perdagangan dunia dalam Info Komoditi Pakaian Jadi. Jakarta: Badan Pengkajian dan Pengembangan Kebijakan Perdagangan.

Bankmed. (2015). Analysis of Lebanon’s Apparel Market 2015.

Bair, J. (2005). Global Capitalism and Commodity Chains: Looking Back, Going Forward. Competition & Change, Vol. 9 (2), pp. 153-180.

Bergstrand, J. H. (1985). The Gravity Equation in International Trade: Some Microeconomics Foundations and Empirical Evidence. The Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 67, pp. 474-481.

BPS. (2017). Perkembangan Indeks Pembangunan Teknologi Informasi dan Komunikasi (IP-TIK). Berita Resmi Statistik No. 114/12/Th. XX, 15 Desember 2017.

Clarke, G. R. G., Wallsten, S. J. (2006). Has the internet increased trade? Developed and developing country evidence. Economi Inquir, Vol. 44 (3), pp.465-484.

Gereffi, G., Memedovic, O. (2003). The global apparel value chain: What prospects for upgrading by developing countries. Vienna, Austria: United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO).

Gereffi, G., Frederick, S. (2010). The global apparel value chain, trade and the crisis: Challenges and opportunities for developing countries. In O. Cattaneo, G. Gereffi & C. Staritz (Eds.), Global Value Chains in a postcrisis world (pp. 157-208). Washington, DC: World Bank. ). In Ardiyanti, S. T., Fakhrudin, U. (2015). Pakaian jadi Indonesia dalam perdagangan dunia dalam Info Komoditi Pakaian Jadi. Jakarta: Badan Pengkajian dan Pengembangan Kebijakan Perdagangan.

Gereffi, G., Garcia-Johnson, R., Sasser, E. (2001). The NGO-Industrial Complex. Foreign Policy (125), pp. 56-65.

Greene, W. H. (2002). Econometric Analysis: Fifth Edition. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Google & Temasek. (2016). e-conomy SEA: Unlocking the USD 200 Billion Digital Opportunity in Southeast Asia.

Hanousek, J., Kočenda, E. (2014). Factors of Trade in Europe. Economic Systems, Vol. 38 (4), pp. 518-535.

Japarianto, E., Sugiharto, S. (2012). Pengaruh shopping lifestyle dan fashion involvement terhadap impulse buying behavior masyarakat high income Surabaya. Jurnal Manajemen Pemasaran, Vol. 6 (1), pp. 32-41.

KADIN. (2011). Ekspor dan Daya Saing. Advancing Indonesia’s Civil Society in Trade and Investment Climate (ACTIVE) Programme

Khan, M. A., Khan, M. Z., Zaman, K., Arif, M. (2014). Global estimates of energy-growth nexus: Application of seemingly unrelated regressions. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Vol. 29, pp. 63-71.

Liang, Y., Zuo, X. (2010). Study the Double-Transfer Path of Guangdong Province on Gravity Model and Cluster Analysis – Taking Foshan’s Ceramics Industry as an Example. Modern Economy, Vol. 1, pp. 206-211.

Liu, L., Nath, H. K. (2013). Information and Communications Technology and Trade in Emerging Market Economies. Emerging Markets Fnance and Trade, Vol. 49 (6), pp. 67-87.

Liu, Y., Zhang, Z., Zhou, Y. (2018). Efficiency of construction land allocation in China: An econometric analysis of panel data. Land Use Policy, Vol. 74, pp. 261-272.

Lord, M., Oktaviani, R., Ruehe, E. (2010). Indonesia’s Trade Access to the European Union: Opportunities and Challenges. A project implemented by Transtec & Equinoccio.

Mardiansyah, A. (2015). Peluang dan tantangan perdagangan pakaian jadi Indonesia dalam Info Komoditi Pakaian Jadi. Jakarta: Badan Pengkajian dan Pengembangan Kebijakan Perdagangan.

Ministry of Communication and Information. (2016). ICT Indicators Infographic 2016.

Ministry of Industry. (2014). Ministry of Industry Online Database (Accessed July 2018).

Moodley, S. (2003). The challenge of e-business for the South African apparel sector. Technovation, Vol 23, pp. 557-570.

Nath, H. K., Liu, L. (2017). Information and communications technology (ICT) and services trade. Information Economics and Policy, Vol 41, pp. 81-87.

Onyeiwu, S. (2002). Inter-Country Variations in Digital Technology in Africa. Evidence, Determinants, and Policy Implications. Discussion Paper No. 2002/72.

Pöyhönen, P. (1963). A Tentative Model for the Volume of Trade between Countries. Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv 90, 93-100.

Ramos, L. M., Zarzoso, I. M. (2010). The Effect of Technological Innovation on International Trade. Economics-E-Journal, Vol. 4.

Rayadiani, S. (2015). Produksi pakaian jadi Indonesia dalam Info Komoditi Pakaian Jadi. Jakarta: Badan Pengkajian dan Pengembangan Kebijakan Perdagangan.

Salvatore, D. (2013). International Economics (11th ed). United States: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Saxena, S. B., Salze-Lozac’h, V. (2010). Competitiveness in the garment and textiles industry: Creating a supportive environment (A case study of Bangladesh). The Asia Foundation.

Terzia, N. (2011). The impact of e-commerce on international trade and employment. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 24, pp. 745-753.

Thiemann, F., Fleming, E., Mueller, R. A. E. (2012). Impact of ICT on International Trade in Fruit and Vegetables: A Gravity Model Approach. Selected Paper Prepared for Presentation at The International Association of Agricultural Economists Triennial Conference.

Tinbergen, J. (1962). An analysis of world trade flows. In: Tinbergen, J. (Ed), Shaping the World Economy. The Twentieth Century Fund, New York.

Tot, B. V. (2014). Textile & Apparel Industry Report: Opportunities for Breakthrough, Vol 04/2014. Vietnam: Fpt Securities.

UN Comtrade. (2018). UN Comtrade Database. (Accessed August, 2018)

Wang, Y., Lee, J. (2012). Estimating the import demand function for China. Economic Modelling, Vol. 29, pp. 2591-2596.

Wang, Y., Li, J. (2017). ICT’s effect on trade: Perspective of comparative advantage. Economic Letters, Vol. 155, pp 96-99.

Yu, M. (2009). Revaluation of the Chinese Yuan and triad trade: A gravity assessment. Journal of Asian Economics, Vol. 20, pp 655-668.

Zheng, Y., Shao, Y., Wang, S. (2017). The determinants of Chinese nonferrous metals imports and exports. Resources Policy, Vol. 53, pp 238-246.

How to Cite
Oktora, S. I., & Muhtasib, N. (2019). The Impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on the Indonesian Apparel Export. Buletin Ilmiah Litbang Perdagangan, 13(1), 119-136.