POTENSI PENINGKATAN AKSES PASAR PRODUK INDONESIA KE PEREKONOMIAN APEC UNTUK MENGANTISIPASI REALISASI FTAAP

Rino Adi Nugroho, Kumara Jati

Abstract


Abstrak

Tulisan ini mengkaji potensi peningkatan akses pasar produk Indonesia ke kawasan Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) untuk mengantisipasi realisasi Free Trade Area of The Asia-Pacific (FTAAP). Penelitian ini menggunakan Export Product Dynamic (EPD), Intra-Industry Trade (IIT), dan analisis Inter-Regional Input-Output (IRIO). Hasil analisis EPD dengan menggunakan klasifikasi 21 sektor diperoleh 15 sektor ekspor Indonesia ke pasar Asia-Pasifik berada pada posisi retreat dan enam sektor lainnya berada pada posisi falling star. Berdasarkan hasil IIT diperoleh lima sektor ekspor Indonesia yang memiliki integrasi dalam kategori integrasi sangat kuat yaitu sektor hasil panen dan hewan, industri pengolahan makanan dan tembakau, industri farmasi, industri karet dan plastik, serta industri perakitan komputer. Sementara itu berdasarkan analisis Inter-Regional Input-Output (IRIO) terhadap 10 ekonomi Asia-Pasifik terlihat bahwa proporsi perdagangan bilateral terhadap total ekspor terbesar yaitu Indonesia terhadap Republik Rakyat Tiongkok (RRT) dan Jepang dengan persentase masing-masing sebesar 1,22% diikuti oleh Korea Selatan dan Jepang masing-masing sebesar 0,4% dan 0,32%. Ekspor Indonesia ke  Australia, RRT, Jepang, Korea Selatan, Meksiko, Rusia dan Taiwan  didominasi oleh barang antara dan ekspor Indonesia ke Amerika Serikat dan Kanada didominasi oleh barang konsumsi langsung. Untuk memperoleh nilai tambah, Indonesia perlu meningkatkan daya saing melalui transfer teknologi dan akses pasar yang fokus pada permintaan akhir.

 

Abstract

This paper examines the potential improvement of market access of Indonesian products to the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) region to anticipate the possibility of the Free Trade Area of The Asia-Pacific (FTAAP) realization. The methods used in this research are Export Product Dynamic (EPD), Intra-Industry Trade (IIT), and Inter-Regional Input-Output (IRIO) analysis. Based on the analysis of EPD using  21 sectors classification, it was obtained 15 export sectors of Indonesia to Asia-Pacific market are in retreat position and other six sectors are in falling  star position. While using the IIT method, there are five Indonesian export sectors that have very strong integration, namely and animal sector, food and tobacco processing industry, pharmaceutical industry, rubber and plastics industry, and computer docking industry. In addition, by using IRIO analysis on 10 Asia-Pacific economies, it showed that the largest share of Indonesia bilateral trade was to China and Japan at about 1.22% respectively. This was followed by South Korea and Taiwan with percentage of 0.4% and 0.32%. The exports of Indonesia to Australia, China, Japan, South Korea, Mexico, Russia and Taiwan were dominated by the intermediate goods, while to the United States and Canada are dominated by final goods. Therefore, to obtain added value,  Indonesia’s has to improve competitiveness with technology transfer and market access increase which focuses on the final demand.


Keywords


Export Product Dynamic (EPD); Intra-Industry Trade (IIT); Inter-Regional Input-Output (IRIO); Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC); Free Trade Area of The Asia-Pacific (FTAAP)

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30908/bilp.v12i2.324

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