KETERKAITAN GLOBALISASI DENGAN PERTUMBUHAN INKLUSIF PADA NEGARA-NEGARA ASEAN BERPENDAPATAN MENENGAH

  • Titis Kusuma Lestari Kementerian Perdagangan
  • Dwi Budi Santoso Universitas Brawijaya
  • Putu Mahardika Adi Saputra Universitas Brawijaya
DOI: https://doi.org/10.30908/bilp.v16i1.594
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Keywords: Globalization, Inclusive Economy, Infrastructure, 3SLS

Abstract

Abstrak

Seiring perkembangan zaman, arus globalisasi dan gelombang teknologi menimbulkan kompetisi di pasar internasional. Untuk memenangkan kompetisi, beberapa negara mendorong kebijakan ke arah keterbukaan perdagangan dan menarik investasi asing sebanyak mungkin. Kebijakan tersebut akan mempercepat pembangunan dan meningkatkan pertumbuhan ekonomi, namun juga akan meningkatkan ketimpangan pendapatan. Dalam penelitian ini dikaji mengenai keterkaitan antara ekspor dan investasi asing, sebagai indikator globalisasi, dengan pertumbuhan ekonomi dan ketimpangan pendapatan, sebagai indikator pertumbuhan inklusif, di negara ASEAN berpendapatan menengah dengan menggunakan analisis regresi panel Three Stage Least Square (3SLS) selama periode 1995-2015. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa, dalam konsep globalisasi, terdapat hubungan dua arah yang signifikan antara ekspor dan investasi asing. Di sisi lain, dalam konsep pertumbuhan inklusif, juga terdapat hubungan dua arah yang signifikan antara pertumbuhan ekonomi dan ketimpangan pendapatan. Sementara itu, ekspor dan investasi asing, sebagai indikator globalisasi, secara positif dapat mendorong pertumbuhan ekonomi inklusif hanya di negara ASEAN berpendapatan menengah ke atas. Oleh karena itu, direkomendasikan untuk mendorong kebijakan yang mempermudah ekspor, khususnya untuk produk yang bernilai tambah tinggi dan berdaya saing, sehingga kontribusi ekspor meningkat dan mampu mendorong pertumbuhan ekonomi negaranya.

Kata Kunci: Globalisasi, Ekonomi Inklusif, Infrastruktur, 3SLS

 

Abstract

In the middle of the last century, globalization and technological waves have created competition in the international market. To win the competition, some countries are pushing policies toward trade openness and attracting as much foreign investment as possible. These policies will accelerate development and increase economic growth, but will also increase income inequality. This study examines the relationship between exports and foreign investment, as an indicator of globalization, with economic growth and income inequality, as an indicator of inclusive growth, in middle-income ASEAN countries using a Three Stage Least Square (3SLS) panel regression analysis during the period 1995-2015. The empirical finding indicates that, in the concept of globalization, there is a significant two-way relationship between exports and foreign investment. On the other hand, in the concept of inclusive growth, there is also a significant two-way relationship between economic growth and income inequality. Meanwhile, exports and foreign investment, as indicators of globalization, can positively encourage inclusive economic growth only in upper middle-income ASEAN countries. Therefore, it is recommended to encourage policies that facilitate exports, especially for products that have high added value and competitive products, so that the contribution of exports increases and is able to increase the country's economic growth.

Keywords: Globalization, Inclusive Economy, Infrastructure, 3SLS

JEL Classification: F40, F62, I00, O18

Author Biographies

Titis Kusuma Lestari, Kementerian Perdagangan

Pusat Kebijakan Ekspor Impor dan Pengamanan Perdagangan

Dwi Budi Santoso, Universitas Brawijaya

Fakultas Ekonomi dan Bisnis

Putu Mahardika Adi Saputra, Universitas Brawijaya

Fakultas Ekonomi dan Bisnis

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Published
2022-07-31
How to Cite
Lestari, T. K., Santoso, D. B., & Saputra, P. M. A. (2022). KETERKAITAN GLOBALISASI DENGAN PERTUMBUHAN INKLUSIF PADA NEGARA-NEGARA ASEAN BERPENDAPATAN MENENGAH. Buletin Ilmiah Litbang Perdagangan, 16(1), 79-102. https://doi.org/10.30908/bilp.v16i1.594
Section
Articles