The Impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on the Indonesian Apparel Export

  • Siskarossa Ika Oktora Politeknik Statistika STIS
  • Nora Muhtasib Badan Pusat Statistik
DOI: https://doi.org/10.30908/bilp.v13i1.363
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Keywords: Perdagangan Internasional, TIK, Industri Pakaian, Model Panel Gravity, Internasional Trade, ICT, Apparel Industry, Panel Gravity Model

Abstract

Abstrak

Perkembangan Teknologi Informasi dan Komunikasi (TIK) berdampak pada perdagangan dalam era digital. Produk pakaian jadi merupakan komoditas utama dalam perdagangan yang ditunjukkan oleh tingginya permintaan untuk komoditas pakaian jadi. Hal tersebut menjadi peluang bagi pertumbuhan industri pakaian jadi dalam negeri, tidak hanya untuk memenuhi konsumsi domestik tetapi juga untuk memperluas pasar luar negeri. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengaruh TIK seperti penggunaan telepon seluler dan terbukanya akses internet, serta variabel lainnya seperti PDB, kurs, populasi, dan jarak terhadap ekspor pakaian jadi Indonesia ke sepuluh mitra dagang utama selama periode 2010-2016 dengan menggunakan model gravitasi pada data panel. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa TIK negara-negara tujuan ekspor berpengaruh signifikan terhadap ekspor pakaian jadi Indonesia, sedangkan TIK Indonesia memberikan hasil yang tidak signifikan. Sementara untuk variabel lainnya, hanya PDB yang berpengaruh signifikan, sedangkan kurs, populasi dan jarak tidak signifikan. Salah satu penyebab mengapa TIK Indonesia tidak signifikan adalah adanya kesenjangan yang lebar pada persentase pengguna internet antar wilayah, yang salah satunya disebabkan oleh tidak meratanya ketersediaan jaringan internet. Perluasan jaringan internet dengan kualitas baik akan dapat menghubungkan para desainer, industri hilir dan pedagang pakaian dalam rantai pemasaran yang lebih luas, selain keterlibatan Indonesia dalam Global Value Chain (GVC).

Kata kunci: Perdagangan Internasional, TIK, Industri Pakaian, Model Panel Gravity

 

Abstract

The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) development has impacted on trade sector in the digital era. Apparel is the main trading commodity which is indicated by a high demand for apparel commodities. There is an opportunity for domestic apparel industry, not only to satisfy domestic consumption but also to expand overseas market. This research aims to analyze the impact of ICT such as the use of cellular telephone and the open access to internet, as well as other variables such as GDP, REER, Population, and Distance on Indonesian apparel export to ten main importers during 2010-2016, by using panel gravity model. This study found that ICT of the export destination countries significantly affected Indonesian apparel export, while Indonesia’s ICT gave insignificant result. Other variables that have significant impact was GDP. While REER, Population, and Distance gave insignificant impact. The reasons for this situation due to a wide gap of internet users percentage between regions because of the unevenly distributed internet sevices. This study suggested, in addition to Indonesia’s better participation in the Global Value Chain (GVC), the expansion of good quality internet networks would enable designers, downstream industries and apparel traders to connect in a broader marketing chain.

Keywords: International Trade, ICT, Apparel Industry, Panel Gravity Model

JEL Classification: P45, O33, L67, C33

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Published
2019-07-30
How to Cite
Oktora, S. I., & Muhtasib, N. (2019). The Impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on the Indonesian Apparel Export. Buletin Ilmiah Litbang Perdagangan, 13(1), 119-136. https://doi.org/10.30908/bilp.v13i1.363
Section
Articles