ANALISIS MODA ENTRI PENYEDIA JASA RITEL INDONESIA KE ASEAN: STUDI KASUS PADA ALFAMART

Muhammad Fawaiq

Abstract


Studi ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis moda entri jasa ritel Indonesia ke negara-negara ASEAN sesuai dengan komitmen setiap negara di AFAS Paket 8. Metode yang digunakan adalah analisis deskriptif dan indeks Hoekman. Hasil studi menunjukkan bahwa Alfamart masuk ke pasar jasa ritel Filipina tanpa memanfaatkan kerjasama AFAS. Hal ini disebabkan Filipina masih menutup jasa ritelnya pada kerjasama tersebut. Moda entri yang digunakan Alfamart untuk masuk ke Filipina adalah  waralaba. Suksesnya Alfamart menjadi tolak ukur untuk mengembangkan alternatif moda entri ke negara-negara ASEAN lainnya sesuai dengan hasil pemetaan peluang akses pasar di AFAS Paket 8. Moda Entri yang diusulkan tersebut yaitu: a) Waralaba untuk negara yang belum terbuka (indeks Hoekman 0) yaitu Brunei Darussalam dan Laos, b) Usaha patungan pada negara-negara yang membuka akses pasar dengan pembatasan (indeks Hoekman 0,5) yaitu Malaysia dan Myanmar, dan c) Kepemilikan saham penuh pada negara-negara yang membuka akses pasar tanpa pembatasan (indeks Hoekman 1) yaitu Vietnam, Kamboja, Singapura dan Thailand. Faktor kunci suksesnya ekspor jasa ritel dalam kasus ini adalah mitra bisnis lokal yang membeli master franchise. Untuk itu,  pemerintah dapat berperan dalam promosi dan misi dagang ke luar negeri untuk menarik mitra bisnis.

 

The aim of this study is to analyze the mode of entry of Indonesia’s retail supplier into ASEAN countries in accordance with the commitment of each country in AFAS Package 8. The methods deployed in this study are the Hoekman Index and descriptive analysis. The study results show that Alfamart has entered into the Philippine market retail services without utilizing AFAS cooperation. This is due to Philippines’s policy that still close its retail services market on such cooperation. The mode of entry used by Alfamart is franchise service. The success of Alfamart can be a benchmark to develop alternative modes of entry into other ASEAN countries in accordance with market access opportunities mapping of AFAS package 8. The alternatives of entry modes proposed in this study are: a) franchise for countries that does not have open access yet (indeks Hoekman 0) such as Brunei Darussalam and Laos, b) joint ventures in countries which have limited open access (indeks Hoekman 0.5) such as Malaysia and Myanmar , c) and wholly owned subsidiary in countries with full access into the market without restrictions (indeks Hoekman 1) such as Vietnam, Cambodia, Singapore and Thailand. A key factor which contributes to the success of retail service exports is local business partners who purchases master franchise. For that, the government can play a decisive role in promoting trade missions abroad to attract business partners.


Keywords


Perdagangan Jasa; AFAS; Jasa Ritel; Peluang Ekspor; Moda Entri; Trade in services; Retail Services, Export Opportunities, Mode of Entry

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30908/bilp.v9i1.14

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