• Immanuel Bogor Agricultural University, Ministry of Trade
  • Suharno Bogor Agricultural University
  • Amzul Rifin Bogor Agricultural University
Abstract Views: 448 | PDF Downloads: 207


Download data is not yet available.
Keywords: CPO, Export Tax, Competitiveness, RCA, EPD, Pajak Ekspor, Daya Saing



Hubungan antara daya saing produk kelapa sawit dan intervensi kebijakan pemerintah di Indonesia masih sering menjadi perdebatan diantara pemangku kepentingan. Terkait dengan hal tersebut, penelitian ini menganalisis hubungan antara pajak ekspor progresif dengan perubahan pangsa ekspor CPO Crude Palm Oil (CPO) dan Refined Palm Oil (RPO) serta mengkaji daya saing kedua komoditi. Metode yang digunakan adalah Revealed Compared Advantage (RCA) dan Export Product Dynamic (EPD) untuk mengukur perubahan pangsa ekspor serta tingkat daya saing produk CPO dan RPO ke negara tujuan utama ekspor. Untuk melihat dampak kebijakan tersebut, kajian ini membandingkan sebelum dan sesudah diberlakukannya kebijakan pajak ekspor progresif pada akhir tahun 2007 dan menggunakan data bulanan ekspor produk CPO dan RPO periode 1997-2018. Hasil analisis menunjukkan bahwa setelah diberlakukannya pajak ekspor progresif, pada komoditi CPO telah terjadi penurunan pangsa ekspor sebesar 21% dan pergeseran tingkat daya saing produk dari posisi Rising Star ke Lost Opportunity. Sebaliknya pada komoditi RPO terjadi peningkatan pangsa ekspor dan daya saing dari Falling Star ke Rising Star. Peningkatan pangsa ekspor dan daya saing RPO merupakan salah satu pencapaian dari tujuan kebijakan pajak ekspor. Analisis ini memberikan catatan penting bagi pemerintah dalam membuka alternatif pasar baru dengan tetap mempertahankan pangsa ekspor di negara tujuan ekspor utama.

Kata Kunci: CPO, Pajak Ekspor, Daya saing, RCA, EPD



The relationship between Indonesia’s palm oil product competitiveness and the government's policy intervention is still disputable among stakeholders. This research analyzes the association between the progressive export tax and the changes in export shares of Crude Palm Oil (CPO) and Refined Palm Oil (RPO) as well as the competitiveness of both commodities. Revealed comparative advantage (RCA) and export product dynamic (EPD) are used to measure the change in the export shares of CPO and RPO as well as of their export competitiveness to the main destination countries. To examine the impact of this policy, this research compares before and after the enactment of a progressive export tax policy at the end of 2007 and uses monthly export data for CPO and RPO products for the period 1997-2018. The result finds that after the enactment of the progressive export tax of CPO , the export share of CPO declined by 21% and the level of competitiveness of CPO products moved from Rising Star to Lost Opportunity compared with the condition during 1997-2007. In contrast, the export share of RPO products increased and its competitiveness level moved to a better position from Falling Star to Rising Star. Although shifting the export value of both CPO and RPO, as one of the objectives of the implementation of the export tax, was achieved, this study is highlighting essential commentary in which policymaker still needs to search for new export markets while maintaining export shares in the main export destinations.

Keywords: CPO, Export Tax, Competitiveness, RCA, EPD

JEL Classification: Q17, F13, O24


Abdulla, I., Arshad, M, F., Bala, B, K., Noh, M, K., Tasrif, M. (2014). Impact of CPO Export Duties On Malaysian Palm Oil Industry. American Journal of Applied Sciences 11 (8): 1301-1309.

Bappenas. (2009). Trade and Investment in Indonesia: A Note on Competititveness and Future Challenge. Jakarta: Bappenas.

Chen, J., Buwajian, A. (2012). Analysis of China’s Agricultural Exports to Five Asian Countries. Management Science and Engineering. Volume 6, No. 2: 96-102. 2012.

Elryah, Y. (2014). Back to the Agriculture - The Development of The Comparative Advantage Of Sudan’s Commodities. Xiamen University Xiamen, P. R. China. January 2015.

Estherhuizen, D. (2006). Measuring and Analyzing Competitiveness in The Agribusiness Sector: Methodological and Analytical Framework. University of Pretoria.

Feenstra, R. C., & Taylor, A. M. (2008). International economics. New York: Worth Publishers.

Hafizah, D. (2011.) Study on Indonesian government policy on CPO trade using market integration approach. Journal of AGRISEP, pp. 10(2). September 2011.

Hasan, Mohamad F, Reed, Michael R, Marchant, Mary A. (2001). Effects of an Export Tax on Competitiveness: The Case of the Indonesian Palm Oil Industry. Journal of Economic Development. Vol. 26 No 2. December 2001.

Hassan, U, M, R. (2013). An Analysis of Competitiveness of Pakistan’s Agricultural Export Commodities. Journal of Business and Management. Vol. 11, Issue 5: 29-34. July- August 2013.

Hasibuan, A., Nurmalina, R., Wahyudi, A. (2012). Analysis of Performance And Competitiveness of Indonesian Cocoa And Its Intermediate Products In The International Market. RISTRI Buletin Volume 3, No 1. 2012

Helpman, E., Paul R.K. (1989). Trade Policy and Market Structure. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Hsu, H.H. & F. tuan. (2001). China’s Accession to WTO Would Boost of Edible Oils. Paper Presented at the WCC-101 Conference, Sonoma, California, USA., April 8-10, 2001.

Immanuel., Khaliqi, M., Amiruddin, A. (2016). The effect of estate-crop fund on Indonesia’s crude palm oil export competitiveness. Proceeding International Conference Strengthening Indonesian Agribusiness: Rural Development and Global Market Linkages. Department of Agribusiness, Bogor Agricultural University in collaboration with NICHE NUFFIC Programme-The Netherlands. April 2016.

Immanuel., Rifin, A., Suharno. (2018). Price Transmission and The Effect of Indonesia’s Export Tax on Crude Palm Oil Prices. Master Thesis. Postgraduate School, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor; Indonesia.

International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis. (2015). The Land Use Change of Biofuels Consumed in The EU, Quantification of Area and Greenhouse Gas Impacts. October 2015. Retrieved from

Kanaya I, A., Firdaus, M. (2014). Daya saing dan permintaan ekspor produk biofarmaka Indonesia di negara tujuan utama periode 2003-2012. Jurnal Manajemen dan Agribisnis. Volume 11 No.3. November 2014

Kania, A. (2014). Analysis of Competitiveness and Determinants of Indonesian CPO Export to India and Netherlands. Bachelor Thesis. Agribusiness Department, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor; Indonesia.

Mulatsih, S., Putri, R.N. (2017). Analysis of Indonesian Men’s Apparel Exports to Seven Countries in European Union. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Indonesia Economy and Development (ICIED 2017). Advances in Social Sciences, Education and Humanities Research (ASSEHR), Volume 126. August 2017.

Ningsih, A. (2013). Analysis of Competitiveness and Factors that Affect The Demand of Indonesian Essential Oils in Export Country. Bachelor thesis. Economy Science Department, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor; Indonesia.

Nurcahyani, M., Masyhuri, Hartono S. (2018). The Export Supply of Indonesian Crude Palm Oil (CPO) to India. Journal of Agro Economy of Gajah Mada University Volume 29 No.1. June 2018

Nugroho, S. (2014). Analysis of Affecting Factors in Indonesia’s Crude Palm Oil and Palm Kernel Oil Export. Bachelor thesis. Resource and Environment Economy Department, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor; Indonesia.

Obado, J., Syaukat, Y., Siregar, H. (2009). The Impacts of Export Tax Policy On The Indonesian Crude Palm Oil Industry. Journal International Society for Southeast Asian Agricultural Sciences. Volume. 15 No. 2: 107-119. November 2009.

Palm Oil Agribusiness Strategic Policy Institute - PASPI. (2014). The Sustainability of Indonesian Palm Oil Industry. Bogor: PASPI.

Prasetyo, A., Marwanti, S., Darsono. (2017). Comparative Advantage and Export Performance of Indonesian Crude Palm Oil in International Markets. Journal of Agro Economy of Sebelas Maret University. Volume 35 No. 2. October 2017.

Porter, M. E. (1990). The Competitive Advantage of Nations. Harvard Business Review. Massachusetts (US): Harvard University.

Pujiati, R. (2014). The Impact of Free Trade Agreements on Commodity Trade Flows (Case Study: International Palm Oil Trade). Master Thesis. Postgraduate School, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor; Indonesia.

Purba J, H, V. (2012). The Impact of Export Tax-Crude Palm Oil on Cooking Oil Industry in Indonesia. PhD Thesis. Postgraduate School, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor; Indonesia.

Rachman, A. (2012). Market Integration and Price Transmission on the CPO and cooking oil markets in Indonesia. Master Thesis. Postgraduate School, Bogor Agricultural University, Bogor; Indonesia.

Rifin, A. (2010a). Export Competitiveness of Indonesia’s Palm Oil Product. Trends in Agriculture Economics, 3(1), 1-18.

Rifin, A. (2010b). The Effect of Export Tax on Indonesia’s Crude Palm Oil (CPO) Export Competitiveness. ASEAN Economic Bulletin 27, 1-18.

Rifin, A. (2012). The Impact of Export Tax Policy on Cocoa Farmers and Supply Chain In Indonesia. The International Trade Journal Volume 29. No. 1. January 2015.

Rifin, A. (2014). The Effect of Crude Palm Oil Export Tax on Export and Prices. ASEAN Journal of Economics, Management, and Accounting 2 (1&2). November 2014.

How to Cite
Immanuel, Suharno, & Rifin, A. (2019). THE PROGRESSIVE EXPORT TAX AND INDONESIA’S PALM OIL PRODUCT EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS. Buletin Ilmiah Litbang Perdagangan, 13(2), 211-232.