TRANSMISI HARGA ASIMETRI DALAM RANTAI PASOK BAWANG MERAH DAN HUBUNGANNYA DENGAN IMPOR DI INDONESIA: STUDI KASUS DI BREBES DAN JAKARTA

Januar Arifin Ruslan, Muhammad Firdaus, Suharno .

Abstract


Disparitas harga bawang merah di tingkat petani dan konsumen sangat besar. Penelitian ini menganalisis transmisi harga dalam rantai pasok bawang merah dan menjelaskan faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhi transmisi harga serta menganalisis hubungan antara harga bawang merah impor terhadap harga produsen dan harga konsumen bawang merah. Penelitian ini menggunakan model Houck dan Error Correction Mechanism (ECM) serta uji kointegrasi dan kausalitas jangka panjang. Data yang digunakan merupakan data bulanan pada petani, pedagang grosir, pengecer di Kabupaten Brebes dan Kota Jakarta serta harga bawang merah impor selama Januari 2008 sampai Desember 2014. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa dalam hubungan petani-grosir terjadi asimetris harga dalam jangka pendek karena terkait dengan biaya penyesuaian, sedangkan grosir-pengecer terjadi asimetris dalam jangka panjang karena terkait dengan penyalahgunaan kekuatan pasar. Penelitian ini juga menunjukkan pentingnya peran dari harga impor bawang merah dalam penentuan harga bawang merah di tingkat produsen dan konsumen. Kebijakan harga plafon (ceiling price) dan harga dasar (floor price) diharapkan dapat menghindari perilaku eksploitasi yang dilakukan pedagang perantara.

 

Shallot, as a potential commodity in Indonesia, has a large price disparity between the farmer and the consumer prices. The price disparity is also linked to the price of shallots import. This research analyzes the price transmission of shallots during its supply chain, discusses the factors influencing the price transmission, and also investigates the relationship between the price of import and the price of producer-and-consumer.This research uses the Houck Model, Error Correction Mechanism (ECM), cointegration test and longrun causality test.The data were monthly price data of farmers, wholesalers, and retailers in Brebes regency and Jakarta; and prices of shallot import  during January 2008 to December 2014.The results showed that the relationship between farmer and wholesale was asymmetric in the short term of price transmission, even in the long term of transmission wholesalers and retailers was also having asymmetric relationship. The asymmetric price transmission in the short term was related to adjusment cost while the asymetric price transmission in the long term indicated the abuse of market power. This study reveals the important role of price import in the farm and retailer prices. It is suggested to set up ceiling price and floor price in order to avoid the exploitative behavior of middlemen.


Keywords


Bawang Merah; Transmisi Asimetris; Impor; Perilaku Pasar; Shallots; Asymmetric Transmission; Import; Market Behaviour

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30908/bilp.v10i1.33

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