THE LEVEL OF COMPARATIVE ADVANTAGES OF WORLD MAIN COFFEE PRODUCERS

Nia Rosiana, Rita Nurmalina, Ratna Winandi, Amzul Rifin

Abstract


Tingkat pertumbuhan produksi kopi dunia cenderung menurun dibandingkan dengan tingkat pertumbuhan konsumsi kopi dunia. Hal ini disebabkan oleh menurunnya produksi kopi di negara-negara penghasil utama. Hal ini berdampak pada jumlah kopi yang diekspor untuk pemenuhan kebutuhan kopi dunia. Penelitian ini menganalisis tingkat persaingan antar negara produsen utama dalam lima periode waktu dengan menggunakan analisis Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA) dan Dynamic Revealed Comparative Advantage (DRCA). Hasil menunjukkan bahwa pada periode 2001-2003, rata-rata pertumbuhan daya saing antar negara paling tinggi dibanding periode lainnya. Hal ini dikarenakan adanya peningkatan ekspor yang cukup signifikan dari negara Honduras yang berdampak pada nilai RCA. Dalam periode 2012-2015, Colombia merupakan negara yang memiliki tingkat pertumbuhan daya saing paling tinggi karena peningkatan jumlah ekspor yang cukup signifikan. Perubahan daya saing dapat mempengaruhi perubahan posisi pasar ekspor suatu negara. Dalam periode 2012-2015, terdapat penurunan pangsa pasar yang terjadi di Vietnam, Ethiopia, India, Honduras, Guatemala dan Peru sedangkan peningkatan pangsa pasar terjadi di Brazil, Colombia, Indonesia, dan Uganda. Posisi Indonesia di pasar kopi dunia tahun 2015 yaitu failing stars dimana pangsa kopi Indonesia lebih tinggi dari pangsa kopi dunia. Peningkatan daya saing akan meningkatkan pangsa pasar suatu negara yang didukung oleh peningkatan teknologi, kualitas dan produktivitas kopi.

 

The rate of world coffee production growth tends to decrease compared to the growth rate of world coffee consumption. This is due to the decline of coffee production in some major producing countries. This has an impact on the quantity of exported coffee to meet the demand of world's coffee. This paper analyzed the level of competition among major producing countries in five periods of time using the analysis of RCA and DRCA. The results showed that during the period 2001-2003,the average growth of competitiveness among countries was found to be the highest compared to other periods. This was due to a significant increase in export from Honduras which affected the value of RCA. During the period 2012-2015, Colombia became a country that achieved the highest growth rate of competitiveness due to the significant increase in the number of export. Change in competitiveness can affect the export market position of a country. During the period 2012-2015, the decline in market shared occurred in Vietnam, Ethiopia, India, Honduras, Guatemala, and Peru, while the increasing market share occurred in Brazil, Colombia, Indonesia, and Uganda. Indonesia’s position in the world coffee in 2015 was at failing stars in which the coffee share in that country was higher than in the world market. Increased competitiveness will enhance the market share of a country that is supported by improvement of the technology, quality and productivity of coffee.


Keywords


Export of Coffee; Comparative Advantage; Coffee; Market Share

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.30908/bilp.v11i2.274

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