LIBERALISASI PERDAGANGAN SEKTOR JASA TRANSPORTASI UDARA ASEAN DAN ASEAN FTA PARTNERS: MODEL IC-IRTS CGE

DOI: https://doi.org/10.30908/bilp.v14i1.435
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Keywords: Air Transportation Services, Non Tariff Barrier, IC-IRTS CGE MOdel, Gravitasi Model, Jasa Transportasi Udara, Hamnbatan Non Tarif, Model Gravitasi

Abstract

Abstrak

Pertumbuhan populasi, peningkatan kesejahteraan ekonomi serta letak geografis Indonesia yang unik meningkatkan “kecenderungan untuk melakukan penerbangan”. Dengan pertimbangan tersebut, jasa transportasi udara merupakan sarana yang amat penting dan efisien dalam menghubungkan hampir 240 juta penduduk Indonesia, maupun penduduk di belahan dunia lainnya. Seperti pada sektor jasa lainnya, hambatan perdagangan di sektor jasa transportasi udara diimplementasikan melalui kebijakan pemerintah melalui berbagai regulasi. Hal ini menyebabkan berbagai regulasi menjadi penghambat karena regulasi tersebut meningkatkan biaya transaksi yang pada akhirnya dibebankan ke konsumen dalam bentuk harga jasa yang lebih tinggi. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk (1) mengestimasi tarif ekuivalen dari NTBs dan (2) menganalisis dampak eliminasi hambatan regulasi di sektor jasa transportasi udara dalam lingkup ASEAN dan ASEAN FTA Partners. Dengan menggunakan model gravity, teridentifikasi bahwa hambatan perdagangan di jasa transportasi udara ASEAN dan ASEAN FTA Partners masih relatif tinggi yaitu antara 0 – 11.2%. Dengan menggunakan CGE model IC-IRTS, simulasi GTAP menunjukkan bahwa hasil penelitian ini konsisten dengan teori pro-kompetitif. Gain yang lebih besar diperoleh dari model CGE yang menggunakan asumsi IC-IRTS dibandingkan PC-CRTS. Dengan asumsi IC-IRTS, China memperoleh manfaat yang lebih besar yang diindikasikan dengan peningkatan kesejahteraan paling tinggi.      

 

Abstract

Population growth, increased economic welfare, and Indonesia's unique geographical location increase the "tendency to travel by air transportation". Based on these conditions, air transport is a fundamental and efficient way to connect almost 240 million Indonesians, and people in other parts of the world. However, like other service sector, trade barriers in the air transportation service is implemented through government policies through regulations. This condition causes the regulations to be barriers because they increase transaction costs charged to consumers in the form of higher service prices. This study aims to (1) estimate the tax-equivalent of NTBs and (2) analyze the impact of eliminating regulatory barriers in the air transportation service within the scope of ASEAN and ASEAN FTA Partners. Using the gravity model, this study identifies that the trade barriers of air transportation services in ASEAN and ASEAN FTA Partners are still relatively high at between 0 - 11.2 percent. Using CGE's IC-IRTS model, GTAP simulation shows that the results of this study are consistent with pro-competitive theories. Greater gain is obtained from the CGE model, which uses the assumption of IC-IRTS compared to PC-CRTS. Assuming IC-IRTS, China will reap greater benefits as indicated by its highest increase in welfare.

JEL Classification: F13, F15, F17

Author Biography

widyastutik , Institut Pertanian Bogor

Departemen Ilmu Ekonomi, Fakultas Ekonomi dan Manajemen

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Published
2020-07-15
How to Cite
widyastutik. (2020). LIBERALISASI PERDAGANGAN SEKTOR JASA TRANSPORTASI UDARA ASEAN DAN ASEAN FTA PARTNERS: MODEL IC-IRTS CGE. Buletin Ilmiah Litbang Perdagangan, 14(1), 147-176. https://doi.org/10.30908/bilp.v14i1.435
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Articles