• Dahlia Nauly Universitas Muhammadiyah Jakarta
  • Harianto Institut Pertanian Bogor
  • Sri Hartoyo Institut Pertanian Bogor
  • Tanti Novianti Institut Pertanian Bogor
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Keywords: Kecenderuangan Ekspor Impor, Kepemilikan Asing, Model Tobit, Industri Makanan Olahan, Export-Import Propensity, Foreign Ownership, Tobit Model, Processed Food Industry, Indonesia



Sektor makanan olahan merupakan salah satu andalan ekspor nonmigas Indonesia. Salah satu upaya untuk meningkatkan ekspor produk makanan olahan Indonesia adalah dengan melibatkan pihak asing agar menanamkan modalnya pada industri makanan olahan. Di sisi lain kepemilikan asing masih menjadi perdebatan di Indonesia. Pembatasan kepemilikan asing dilakukan untuk melindungi perusahaan domestik. Tujuan penelitian ini menganalisis dampak kepemilikan asing terhadap kecenderungan ekspor output dan impor bahan baku perusahaan makanan olahan Indonesia. Data yang digunakan adalah data cross section hasil Survei Tahunan Industri Besar dan Sedang tahun 2010 dan 2015 dari Badan Pusat Statistik. Penelitian ini menggunakan analisis model Tobit. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa kepemilikan asing berpengaruh positif terhadap kecenderungan ekspor makanan olahan. Pengaruh besarnya porsi kepemilikan asing bergantung pada kebijakan substitusi impor atau promosi ekspor yang diterapkan pemerintah. Kepemilikan asing juga berpengaruh positif pada kecenderungan impor bahan baku makanan olahan. Oleh sebab itu, untuk meningkatkan ekspor makanan olahan pemerintah perlu mendorong investasi asing di industri makanan olahan. Upaya untuk mengurangi impor bahan baku oleh perusahaan asing dapat dilakukan dengan mendorong penyediaan bahan baku lokal yang kompetitif dari segi harga dan kualitas.



The processed food sector is one of the contributors to Indonesia's non-oil and gas exports. One of the efforts to increase Indonesian processed food products export is by involving foreign parties to invest in the processed food industry. On the other hand, foreign ownership is still debated in Indonesia. Restrictions on foreign ownership are often done to protect domestic companies. This study aims to analyze the impact of foreign ownership on processed food export and raw material import propensity of Indonesia's processed food. The data used are the cross-section data from 2010 and 2015 Large and Medium Industry (IBS) from Statistics Indonesia. The Tobit regression model is utilized in this research. The results show that foreign ownership has a positive effect on processed food export propensity, but the large share of foreign ownership depends on the policies adopted by the government, whether import substitution or export promotion. Foreign ownership also has a positive effect on raw material import propensity. Therefore, to increase exports of processed food, the government needs to encourage foreign investment in the processed food industry. To reduce imports of raw materials by foreign firms is carried out by encouraging the domestic supply of raw materials, which is competitive in price and quality.

JEL Classification: F14, F23, O53

Author Biographies

Dahlia Nauly, Universitas Muhammadiyah Jakarta

Fakultas Pertanian

Harianto, Institut Pertanian Bogor

Fakultas Ekonomi dan Manajemen

Sri Hartoyo, Institut Pertanian Bogor

Fakultas Ekonomi dan Manajemen

Tanti Novianti, Institut Pertanian Bogor

Fakultas Ekonomi dan Manajemen


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How to Cite
Nauly, D., Harianto, Hartoyo, S., & Novianti, T. (2020). KEPEMILIKAN ASING DAN KECENDERUNGAN EKSPOR-IMPOR INDUSTRI MAKANAN OLAHAN INDONESIA. Buletin Ilmiah Litbang Perdagangan, 14(1), 47-74.