DAMPAK FDI VERTIKAL DAN HORIZONTAL TERHADAP NILAI TAMBAH 18 SUB SEKTOR INDUSTRI MAKANAN DOMESTIK

  • Fitria Yuliani Kementerian Pertanian
  • Hermanto Siregar Institut Pertanian Bogor
  • Widyastutik Institut Pertanian Bogor
  • Amzul Rifin Institut Pertanian Bogor
DOI: https://doi.org/10.30908/bilp.v13i2.422
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Keywords: Industri Makanan Domestik, FDI Horizontal, FDI Vertikal, Keterkaitan ke belakang, Keterkaitan ke depan, Nilai Tambah, Value Added, Domestic Food Industry, Downstream Linkages, Upstream Linkages, Horizontal FDI, Vertical FDI

Abstract

Abstrak

Untuk meningkatkan pertumbuhan ekonomi, Indonesia membutuhkan investasi asing langsung/Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) karena tingkat tabungan di Indonesia jauh lebih kecil dibandingkan kebutuhan investasi. FDI diyakini dapat meningkatkan nilai tambah suatu sektor atau industri. FDI terdiri dari dua jenis, yaitu FDI horizontal (intra industri) dan FDI vertikal (inter industri – dengan keterkaitan ke depan dan ke belakang). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui dampak FDI vertikal dan horizontal terhadap nilai tambah di 18 sub sektor industri makanan domestik. Dengan menggunakan metode estimasi fixed effect cross section SUR model dan random effect model, hasil penelitian menunjukkan FDI vertikal dengan keterkaitan ke belakang memberikan dampak paling besar terhadap nilai tambah perusahaan domestik dibandingkan FDI vertikal dengan keterkaitan ke depan dan horizontal. FDI vertikal dengan keterkaitan ke belakang berdampak positif terhadap nilai tambah perusahaan domestik dengan modal rendah dan padat tenaga kerja (padat karya). Oleh karena itu, investasi asing di industri makanan paling hilir, seperti industri minuman tidak beralkohol dan industri makanan lainnya perlu dibuka dengan persyaratan bagi investor asing melakukan kerja sama sub contracting dengan perusahaan domestik di industri makanan hulu.

Kata kunci:   Industri Makanan Domestik, FDI Horizontal, FDI Vertikal, Keterkaitan ke Belakang, Keterkaitan ke Depan, Nilai Tambah

 

Abstract

To boost its economic growth, Indonesia needs Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) since the national savings rate is relatively low compared to the high demand for investments. FDI has been proven to be able to enhance the value-added of a sector or industry. There are 2 types of FDI which are Horizontal FDI (intra-industry) and Vertical FDI (inter industry-with upstream and downstream linkages). This study aimed to analyze the impact of horizontal and vertical FDI on the value added to the 18 subsectors in the domestic food industry. By using the fixed-effect cross-section SUR and random effect model, the results showed that the vertical FDI on downstream linkages gives a more positive effect on value-added than vertical FDI on upstream linkages and horizontal FDI. The vertical FDI on downstream linkages gives a positive impact on local companies with a lower level of capital but higher labor (labor-intensive). Therefore, FDI on downstream linkages (for example other food industry, non-alcoholic beverages, etc) should be opened on conditions that it commits a sub-contracting cooperation with the domestic firms within the food processing industry in upstream sectors.

Keywords: Domestic Food Industry, Downstream Linkages, Horizontal FDI, Vertical FDI, Upstream Linkages, Value Added

JEL Classification: F21; E22; C23; O33

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Published
2019-12-31
How to Cite
Yuliani, F., Siregar, H., Widyastutik, & Rifin, A. (2019). DAMPAK FDI VERTIKAL DAN HORIZONTAL TERHADAP NILAI TAMBAH 18 SUB SEKTOR INDUSTRI MAKANAN DOMESTIK. Buletin Ilmiah Litbang Perdagangan, 13(2), 233-258. https://doi.org/10.30908/bilp.v13i2.422
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Articles