Dampak Penghapusan Subsidi Ekspor Produk Pertanian Terhadap Harga dan Perdagangan Produk Pangan Indonesia

  • Steven Raja Ingot Kementerian Perdagangan
  • Rahayu Ningsih Kementerian Perdagangan
DOI: https://doi.org/10.30908/bilp.v13i1.312
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Keywords: Subsidi Ekspor, Produk Pertanian, Produk Pangan, GTAP, WTO, Export Subsidy, Agriculture Products, Food Products

Abstract

Abstrak

Salah satu komitmen terpenting hasil pertemuan Konferensi Tingkat Menteri World Trade Organisation (WTO) di Nairobi tahun 2015 adalah diberlakukannya penghapusan subsidi ekspor produk pertanian negara anggota WTO, baik oleh negara maju (pada 2015) maupun negara berkembang (pada 2018). Studi ini bertujuan untuk melihat dampak penghapusan subsidi ekspor produk pertanian oleh negara asal terhadap harga dan perdagangan produk pangan Indonesia. Dengan menggunakan model Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) disimpulkan bahwa penghapusan subsidi ekspor produk pertanian akan mengakibatkan kenaikan harga beberapa produk pangan impor Indonesia terutama susu. Selain itu, penghapusan subsidi ekspor juga akan berdampak pada menurunnya impor Indonesia untuk produk hortikultura, susu, dan makanan olahan sedangkan ekspor Indonesia untuk daging sapi, gula, susu dan makanan olahan akan naik. Hal ini menunjukkan bahwa Indonesia berpotensi untuk swasembada produk pangan sehingga dapat mengurangi ketergantungan terhadap impor.  Dengan demikian komitmen penghapusan subsidi ekspor oleh negara mitra dagang akan berdampak positif bagi Indonesia jika didukung dengan peningkatan produktivitas produk pangan.

Kata Kunci: Subsidi Ekspor, Produk Pertanian, Produk Pangan, GTAP, WTO

 

Abstract

One of the most important commitments of the meeting of the World Trade Organization (WTO) Ministerial Conference in Nairobi 2015 is the abolition of export subsidies for agricultural products of WTO member countries, both developed countries (in 2015) and developing countries (in 2018). This study aims to examine the impact of the elimination of export subsidy on agricultural products by trading partners toward the price and trade pattern of Indonesian food products. Using the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model, the analysis shows that the elimination of export subsidies for agricultural products would lead to higher prices of Indonesian imported food products particularly for milk products. In addition, the abolition of export subsidy would reduce Indonesian imports of horticultural commodities, milk, and processed food while exports of beef, sugar, milk and processed foods would rise. This shows that Indonesia has the potential for self-sufficiency in some food products, thereby reducing dependence on imports, therefore the abolition of export subsidy will given a more positive impact on Indonesia if supported by increasing productivity of food products.  

Keywords: Export Subsidy, Agricultural Products, Food Products, GTAP, WTO

JEL Classification: D58, F13, Q17, Q18

Author Biographies

Steven Raja Ingot, Kementerian Perdagangan

Badan Pengkajian dan Pengembangan Perdagangan

Rahayu Ningsih, Kementerian Perdagangan

Badan Pengkajian dan Pengembangan Perdagangan

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Published
2019-07-31
How to Cite
Ingot, S. R., & Ningsih, R. (2019). Dampak Penghapusan Subsidi Ekspor Produk Pertanian Terhadap Harga dan Perdagangan Produk Pangan Indonesia. Buletin Ilmiah Litbang Perdagangan, 13(1), 99-118. https://doi.org/10.30908/bilp.v13i1.312
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Articles