Global Value Chains (GVC) Pada Komoditi Primer dan Manufaktur: Studi ASEAN 6

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Steven Raja Ingot
Kiki Verico

Abstract

Semakin rendahnya biaya perdagangan antar negara menyebabkan peningkatan kegiatan perdagangan dengan skema Global Value Chains (GVC) yang terbukti memberikan banyak manfaat bagi negara antara lain percepatan industrialisasi, transfer teknologi, penyerapan tenaga kerja dan peningkatan nilai tambah industri. Partisipasi dalam GVC terdiri dari dua komponen yakni forward participation dan backward participation dimana keduanya memiliki karakteristik yang berbeda. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi apakah ekspor komoditi primer (karet dan CPO) negara ASEAN 6 berhubungan dengan partisipasi GVC forward dan ekspor komoditi manufaktur (elektronik dan otomotif) berhubungan dengan GVC backward serta mengeksplorasi faktor-faktor yang dapat mendorong partisipasi GVC. Studi ini menggunakan data panel dinamis dengan metode GMM dan menemukan bahwa ekspor komoditi primer berhubungan dengan GVC forward kecuali untuk produk CPO sedangkan ekspor komoditi manufaktur berhubungan dengan GVC backward. Peningkatan GDP berpengaruh negatif terhadap partisipasi GVC sehingga peningkatan produktivitas sangat diperlukan untuk mendorong partisipasi, sedangkan FDI yang masuk ke wilayah ASEAN 6 diindikasikan lebih kepada resource dan market seeking bukan network seeking. kualitas infrastuktur berhubungan positif dengan forward participation karena kualitas produk hasil sumber daya alam berpengaruh dari kualitas infrastruktur. Kualitas pembiayaan dalam negeri dan kualitas institusi perlindungan hukum atas hak kekayaan intelektual berhubungan dengan backward participation. Pemodalan juga sangat dibutuhkan oleh industri untuk mendukung kegiatan perdagangannya serta kualitas perlindungan atas hak kekayaan intelektual juga berhubungan positif dalam mendorong backward participation.

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