Analisis Dampak FLEGT VPA Terhadap Ekspor Hutan Indonesia Ditengah EU Green Deal

Main Article Content

Hino Samuel Jose

Abstract

Forestry export is one of Indonesia’s strongest industries embraced in economic diplomacy or the international trade negotiation. FLEGT VPA that is conducted between Indonesia and European Union gave a fresh head start for Indonesia’s forestry exports, however it also exposed Indonesia into new challenges amid the Indonesia-EU CEPA negotiation with the EU Green Deal happening. Therefore, Indonesia needs to scrutinize every dimension that might obstruct national export development in the post-pandemic era and to keep the demands flowing for the forest industries. This article is aimed to discuss on how FLEGT VPA impacts Indonesia’s forest timber exports after the signing of Permendag 74/2020. This article also discussed the context on how Indonesia through FLEGT VPA can face against the EU Green Deal in forestry export. This article is researched using document-based research of literature studies and supporting data. This research concludes that FLEGT VPA through Permendag 74/2020 is adopted as part of Indonesia’s trade development and recovery efforts in post Covid-19 pandemic and to adopts the Timber Legal Verification System.   FLEGT VPA has also impacts the forestry small and medium exporters because of the increased production cost as the result of the timber bureaucracy that was set by the government. This article resulted that FLEGT VPA however imposed challenges but at the same time developing its market capabilites and export to create a positive image for the sustainable timber industry. Amid the increased green politics in European Union affecs intra ASEAN hence committed for all member states in starting through possible foreign trade and economic cooperation scheme.

Article Details

Section
Articles

References

Andry, G. (2016, Maret 14). Aturan SVLK Menggerus Ekspor Industri Hasil Hutan. Dipetik Februari 16, 2021, dari Info Publik: http://infopublik.id/read/148658/aturan-svlk-menggerus-ekspor-industri-hasil-hutan.html?show=#

APHI. (2020, September 23). PRODUK KAYU SUSTAINABLE INDONESIA SEMAKIN DIPERCAYA PASAR INGGRIS. Dipetik Juni 10, 2021, dari Rimbawan: Asosiasi Pengusaha Hutan Indonesia: https://www.rimbawan.com/berita/produk-kayu-sustainable-indonesia-semakin-dipercaya-pasar-inggris/

Astana, S., Obidzinski, K., Riva, W. F., Hardiyanto, G., Komarudin, H., & Sukanda. (2014). Implikasi Biaya dan Manfaat Pelaksanaan SVLK Terhadap Sektor Perkayuan Skala Kecil. Jurnal Penelitian Sosial dan Ekonomi Kehutanan, 11(3), 175-198.

Azis, R. A. (2020). Analisis Dampak Lingkungan Produksi Kayu Lapis dengan Metode Life Cycle Assessment. Magelang: Fakultas Teknik Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang.

Basnyat, B., Baral, S., Tiwari, K. R., Shrestha, G. K., Adhikari, B., & Dahal, Y. N. (2020). Covid-19 Outbreak, Timber Production, and Livelihood in Nepal. Tribhuvan University Journal, 34, 15-32.

Bergman, R., Puettmann, M., Taylor, A., & Skog, K. E. (2014). The Carbon Impacts of Wood Products. Forest Products Journal, 64(8), 220-231.

BP2KP. (2014). Kajian Penyusunan Strategi Pengembangan Ekspor Indonesia 2015-2019. Jakarta: BP2KP Kementerian Perdagangan RI. Diambil kembali dari http://bppp.kemendag.go.id/media_content/2017/08/Kajian_Penyusunan_Strategi_Pengembangan_Ekspor_Indonesia_2015-2019.pdf

BPPK Kementerian Luar Negeri. (2012). Diplomasi Ekonomi: Optimalisasi Instrumen Kerjasama Luar Negeri Sebagai Upaya Peningkatan Ekspor dan Arus Masuk Investasi Asing ke Indonesia. Jakarta: Kementerian Luar Negeri RI.

Burns, S., & Giessen, L. (2014). Identifying the main actors and their position on international forest policy issues in Argentina. Bosque, 35(2), 163-173.

Dama, M. S. (2018). Strategi Indonesia Dalam Menghadapi Isu Industrial Standarization Law Jepang Terhadap Produk Kayu Lapis. Jurnal Ilmu Hubungan Internasional Unmul, 6(4), 1611-1630.

Dwiprabowo, H. (2009). Analisis Daya Saing Ekspor Panel-Panel Kayu Indonesia dan Malaysia. Jurnal Analisis Kebijakan Kehutanan, 6(2), 151-160.

EFI. (2009). EFI Policy Brief 3. European Forest Institute. Diambil kembali dari https://www.euflegt.efi.int/documents/10180/23013/EFI+Policy+Brief+3+-+What+is+a+Voluntary+Partnership+Agreement/076495d8-741e-49da-aeaf-b67e2d3d2239

EU FLEGT. (2019). Vietnam: All About Vietnam-EU Voluntary Partnership Agreement. Dipetik April 28, 2021, dari EU FLEGT Facility: https://www.euflegt.efi.int/vietnam
EU FLEGT. (2020). Summary of EU-Indonesia AP 2020. EU FLEGT. Diambil kembali dari https://www.euflegt.efi.int/documents/10180/463576/Summary+of+EU-IDN+AP+2020.pdf/19a16f61-d3b3-9cfa-794e-54569f291b43

EUBA. (2020, April). EUBA position on the EU Green Deal. Dipetik Maret 13, 2021, dari Bioeconomy Alliance: https://bioeconomyalliance.eu/sites/default/files/EUBA_PP_EUGreenDeal_Final_0.pdf

EUFLEGT. (2018). Annual Report 2018: Implementation of the Indonesia-EU Voluntary Partnership Agreement on Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade. EUFLEGT. Diambil kembali dari https://www.euflegt.efi.int/documents/10180/463576/Indonesia+VPA+Annual+Report+2018.pdf/524de41f-c64d-5665-785c-ca4d74f918b6

EUFLEGT. (n.d). How are VPAs negotiated? Dipetik Februari 8, 2021, dari EUFLEGT Facility: https://www.euflegt.efi.int/vpa-negotiations

EUFLEGT. (n.d). National VPA Negotiating Structures. Dipetik Februari 8, 2021, dari EUFLEGT: https://www.vpaunpacked.org/national-vpa-negotiating-structures

European Parliament. (2021, Febuari 22). Legislative Train Schedule: A European Green Deal. Dipetik Maret 10, 2021, dari European Parliament Legislative Train: https://www.europarl.europa.eu/legislative-train/api/stages/report/current/theme/a-european-green-deal/file/new-eu-forest-strategy

Fajari, K. (1997). Strategi Pemanfaatan Konsep Hutan Lestari Dalam Menunjang Pembangunan Berkelanjutan. Masyarakat Perhutanan Indonesia.

FAO. (2014). The Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) Process in Central and West Africa: From Theory to Practice. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization .

FAO. (n.d). The impacts of COVID-19 on the forest sector - how to respond? Dipetik Maret 13, 2021, dari http://www.fao.org/2019-ncov/q-and-a/impacts-on-the-forest-sector/en/
Ginting, A. (2014). Perkembangan neraca perdagangan dan faktor-faktor yang mempengaruhinya. Buletin Ilmiah Litbang Perdagangan, 8(1), 51-72.

Gruszczynski, L. (2020). The Covid-19 Pandemic and International Trade: Temporary Turbulences or Paradigm Shift? European Journal of Risk Regulation, 11(2), 337-342.

Handoyo, R. D. (2020). Impact of Covid 19 on Trade, FDI, Real Exchange Rate, and Era of Digitalization: Brief Review Global Economic During Pandemic. Journal of Developing Economies, 5(2), 86-90.

Holsti, K. (1982). Why nations realign: Foreign policy restructuring in the postwar world. London: Allen & Unwin.
ITTO. (2020). Tropical Timber Market Report Vol. 24 No. 7. International Tropical Timber Technical Association. Diambil kembali dari https://www.atibt.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/ITTO-MIS-Tropical-Timber-Market-Report-24-20200416-1.pdf

Jonsson, R., Giurca, A., Masiero, M., Pepke, E., Pettenella, D., Prestemon, J., & Winkel, G. (2015). Assessment of the EU Timber Regulation and FLEGT Action Plan. European Forest Institute. Diambil kembali dari https://efi.int/sites/default/files/files/publication-bank/2018/efi_fstp_1_2015.pdf

Kemenko Marves RI. (2020, Mei 22). Menko Luhut : Pentingnya Sistem Verifikasi Legalitas Kayu (SVLK) terkait Pengelolaan Produk Hutan Berkelanjutan. Dipetik February 16, 2021, dari Kementerian Koordinator Bidang Kemaritiman dan Investasi: https://maritim.go.id/menko-luhut-pentingnya-sistem-verifikasi-legalitas-kayu/
Kettunen, M., Bodin, E., Davey, E., Gionfra, S., & Charveriat, C. (2020). An EU Green Deal for trade policy and the environment:. London: IEEP.

Kunkunrat, & Hariyadi, R. P. (2017). Kerja Sama FLEGT-VPA (Forest Law Enforcement Government and Trade-Voluntary Partnership Agreement) Indonesia-Uni Eropa dalam Peningkatan Ekspor Produk Hasil Hutan Indonesia ke Uni Eropa. Jurnal Transborders, 1(1), 50-61. Diambil kembali dari http://repository.unpas.ac.id/27708/

Leonard, M., Pisani-Ferry, J., Shapiro, J., Tagliapietra, S., & Wolff, G. (2021). The geopolitics of the European Green Deal. Policy Contribution.

Lung, F. D. (2018). Pengaruh Implementasi Kesepakatan Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade Voluntary Partnership Agreement (FLEGT VPA) Terhadap Kebijakan Penggunaan Sistem Verifikasi dan Legalitas Kayu (SVLK) Pada Ekspor Kayu Dan Produk Kayu Indonesia ke Uni Eropa. Jurnal Hubungan Internasional Verity, 10(19), 49-62. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.19166/verity.v10i19.1310

Mankiw, G. N. (2008). Principles of Macroeconomics. Toronto: Thomson Nelson.

Mayer, J., Bass, S., & Macquee, D. (2002). The Pyramid: A Diagnostic and Planning Tools for Good Forest Governance. The World Bank and WWF.

Morello, S., Lewis, T., & Green, S. (2021, April 23). Forestry industry says China log exports remain in limbo with no end in sight to trade dispute. Dipetik April 29, 2021, dari ABC News: https://www.abc.net.au/news/2021-04-23/log-china-export-industry-remains-in-limbo/100075230

Pratomo, H. (2017, November 30). Ekspor kayu bersertifikat ke Uni Eropa tembus USD 1 miliar. Dipetik Juni 9, 2021, dari Merdeka.com: https://www.merdeka.com/uang/ekspor-kayu-bersertifikat-ke-uni-eropa-tembus-usd-1-miliar.html

Profundo. (2019). Second Periodic Evaluation FLEGT VPA - Indonesia European Union. EUFLEGT. Diambil kembali dari https://www.euflegt.efi.int/documents/10180/463576/Summary+PE+2+FLEGT+VPA.pdf/fd398eab-a3c3-8b85-eee5-9bfd098d3829

Putri, C. A. (2020, April 10). PSBB Berlaku Hari Ini, Apa Dampaknya ke Ekonomi Jakarta? Dipetik April 28, 2021, dari CNBC Indonesia: https://www.cnbcindonesia.com/news/20200410061039-4-151038/psbb-berlaku-per-hari-ini-apa-dampaknya-ke-ekonomi-jakarta

Rahanti, S. S. (2016). Indonesia dan Kerja Sama Forest Law Enforcement Governance and Trade - Voluntary Partnership Agreement (FLEGT-VPA) Dalam Menangani Perdagangan Kayu Ilegal Indonesia. Journal of International Relations Universitas Diponegoro, 2(1), 138-144.

Ridho, A., Fathun, L. M., & Juned, M. (2019). Implementasi Kerjasama Inggris Dalam Kerangka Multistakeholder Forestry Programme (MFP 3) Terhadap Peningkatan Produk Kayu Indonesia 2014-2016. Journal Asia Pacific Studies, 3(1), 74-83. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.33541/japs.v3i1.967

Rinaldi, M. (2017). Analisis Pengaruh Perdagangan Internasional dan Variabel Makro Ekonomi terhadap Pertumbuhan Ekonomi di Indonesia. Jurnal Ekonomi dan Kebijakan Publik Indonesia, 7(2), 49-60.
Sari, S., & Nirmala, M. P. (2019). Kerjasama Indonesia-Uni Eropa Dalam Mengoptimalkan Implementasi Reducing Emissions From Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+). Jurnal Dinamika Global, 4(2), 249-268. doi:https://doi.org/10.36859/jdg.v4i02.133

Setkab RI. (2018, Januari 15). Nilai Ekspor Indonesia Sepanjang 2017 Naik 16,22%, Surplus Perdagangan 11,84 Miliar Dollar. Dipetik Februari 9, 2021, dari Sekretariat Kabinet RI: https://setkab.go.id/nilai-ekspor-indonesia-sepanjang-2017-naik-1622-surplus-perdagangan-1184-miliar-dollar/

Siddi, M. (2020). The European Greendeal: Assessing its Current State and Future Implementation. Helsinki: Finnish Institute of International Affairs.

Smith, A. (1986). The Wealth of Nations. London: Penguin Books.
Suradiredja, D. Y. (2020, Agustus 24). Dampak Kesepakatan Hijau Eropa Bagi Indonesia. Dipetik Maret 13, 2021, dari Forest Digest: https://www.forestdigest.com/detail/725/dampak-kesepakatan-hijau-eropa-bagi-indonesia

Surur, M. R. (2018). Pengaruh Implementasi Rencana Aksi EU FLEGT-VPA Terhadap Tata Kelola Hutan Indonesia (2014-2016). Jurnal Analisis Hubungan Internasional, 7(2), 96-112.

Susanto, V. Y. (2020, Januari 4). Ekspor kayu olahan Indonesia sepanjang tahun 2019 turun 4%. Dipetik Februari 9, 2021, dari Kontan: https://industri.kontan.co.id/news/ekspor-kayu-olahan-indonesia-sepanjang-tahun-2019-turun-4-1

Susilawati, Falefi, R., & Purwoko, A. (2020). Impact of Covid-19's Pandemic on the Economy of Indonesia. Budapest International Research and Critics Institute-Journal, 3(2), 1147-1156.

Tambunan, T. (2004). Globalisasi dan Perdagangan Internasional. Bogor: Ghalia Indonesia.

Yunianto, T. K. (2020, Juli 16). Ekspor Produk Kehutanan Januari-Juni 2020 Anjlok 5% Imbas Covid-19. Dipetik Februari 16, 2021, dari KataData.co.id: https://katadata.co.id/happyfajrian/berita/5f103979ec641/ekspor-produk-kehutanan-januari-juni-2020-anjlok-5-imbas-covid-19

Zufrizal. (2020, Oktober 3). Surplus Lagi! Ekspor RI ke UE Tembus 16 Miliar Euro Tahun Lalu. Dipetik Februari 8, 2021, dari Bisnis: https://ekonomi.bisnis.com/read/20201003/12/1300102/surplus-lagi-ekspor-ri-ke-ue-tembus-16-miliar-euro-tahun-lalu#:~:text=Bisnis.com%2C%20JAKARTA%20%E2%80%94%20Indonesia,dengan%20Uni%20Eropa%20selama%202019.&text=Bagi%20UE%2C%20tulis%20laporan%20tersebut